Stages of Technological Evolution

Technological Evolution : A few years ago, not many, let’s say about 5 million years ago, the man had his entire body covered in hair. Then he lost it (although not in all cases), but in any case, the man found a way to protect his needs, and to avoid the cold, he covered himself with the skins of the animals that he hunted to eat.

Later, he discovered that vegetable fibers could shelter him and invented clothing. He got tired of going barefoot and developed shoes, he got tired of yelling, and he created the telephone. They got tired of red-hot his fingers (and eyelashes) with rushes. He invented the electric light, got tired of counting by hand, and developed the calculator and the computer.

As we know, technology productions objects to improve our excellence of life in all aspects. And what’s more, these technological innovations seem to emerge at a very high rate, think if not how quickly your computer will become obsolete only months later.

Technological Evolution goes hand in hand with Science, although both are different:

·        Scientific discoveries encompass knowledge itself.

·        The technology applies this knowledge to solve a human need.

The Prehistory.

It is the period elapsed from the appearance of the first human being to the invention of writing more than 5,000 years ago.

Their technological advances were gear towards their survival.

Prehistory is divide into three stages; Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.

The first technological revolution occurred about 10,000 years ago, in the Neolithic, when human beings went from being nomads to sedentary, developing the first agricultural techniques.

Key Discovery: Agriculture

We call prehistory the period that elapsed from the appearance of the first hominids to the formation of the first written documents Technological Evolution

The Ancient Age (3 000 BC – 5th century AD).

In Mesopotamia, the Sumerians invented cuneiform writing (around 3,000 BC), and in Egypt, Imhotep introduced natural stone into buildings.

At this time, the city-states appear in Greece and the territorial empires (Rome).

The Greek contributions were more scientific and philosophical, while the Romans were more dedicated to civil and military engineering.

At the end of this period, technological development declines, historians attribute it to slavery. Slaves are cheap labor, so it is unnecessary to produce innovations that facilitate manual and repetitive tasks.

The Middle Ages (5th century AD-1492).

The Western Roman Empire fell definitively in the 5th century due to barbarian invasions.

In the East, the Arabs are the heirs of classical culture, which they will be in charge of reintroducing in Europe. In similar, from 2,000 BC to the 15th period in China, they built a prosperous society that produced endless technological successes.

San Alberto Magno, Ramón Llull, Roger Bacon, and Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), the doctors Avicenna and Averroes, and the mathematician Al-Karayi stand out from this period.

In Europe, there was an intellectual resurgence with the creation of universities and cathedral schools from the eleventh century.

At this time, many inventions appear. Three technological novelties stand out from the rest: paper, printing, and dust.

The Modern Age (1492 – 1789).

It is the period between the discovery of America and the French Revolution.

In this period, the great geographical discoveries such as the discovery of America, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Counter-Reformation stand out.

With the development of cities, there was a change in the economic scheme: the outdated economy gave way to the first signs of the capitalist system.

This activity led to the need to seek new lands to get the raw materials necessary to manufacture the products. In addition, it meant the opening of new marketplaces where to sell them.

At this time, many inventions appear. Three technological novelties stand out from the rest: the compass, cartography, and firearms.

Fundamental discovery: The galleon

The Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840).

The first industrial revolution was born in England in the 18th century with the invention of the steam engine. For the first time, People could perform agrarian or industrial tasks without the effort of people or animals.

This invention led to large-scale agriculture and the development of businesses.

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